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HOME

ABOUT

CONTEXT

TV Schedule Current

Past Programs

Past Programs

INDEX GUEST LISTING BY NAME 01-01-73 TO 06-30-11

Public AccessTV,
A Systems Consideration Graphics

Current Financial Crisis
Oct., 2008

Autodidact Tutorials

Keynes Letter to
Grandchildren 1930

Synergetic Educational Manifesto 1970

Carbon 60 # 1

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Cable Access Producers

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       Cablecast and web streaming of program

                              in series

"Conversations with Harold Hudson Channer"

                Upcoming Cable Television/Web Show: 

          For details of airing see bottom of page

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FRIDAY APRIL  15, 2016

(Originally aired: July 1974)

                            R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER

                                             (July 12, 1895 July 1, 1983  R.I.P.)

                   

                               Polymath / Visionary / Architect

                      Inventor / Philosopher / Author

                             Comprehensivist / Poet

Principal  Proponent of a "Post Scarcity Economic Ontology"

following the year 1970. -\Seen By Many as THE Major Premise

of Fuller's Many Contributions to Improving the Human Condition

Within the Larger Ecological Order.

Link (Immediately below) to Google search: "Post Scarcity Economics" {About 90,000 results (0.26 seconds)} A good beginning - to

 address the most fundamental Practical issue confronting the Evolution of Consciousness in our Universe Newly Now Possessed of

 Weapons Systems Capable of Eliminating the Homo Sapiens Species.

(To access link below please copy and paste to address bar)

https://www.google.com/#hl=en&cp=26&gs_id=2&xhr=t&q=%22Post+Scarcity+Economics%22&tok=FIXrIDznwrbyndiKhuzE9Q&pf=p&sclient=psy-ab&site=&source=hp&pbx=1&oq=%22Post+Scarcity+Economics%22+&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=82fa4ecb61843f2&biw=1020&bih=547

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Once the new reality is taken into account (even ever mentioned as possible of consideration within our evolving "Synergetic Universe}

 by the so called established authorities (G-20 / G8 - G1?) defending the modern day "Ancien Regime" and its outdated intellectual.

 political, geopolitical, and economic assumptions and institutions reifying their Zero Sum Imperialistic Visionless Plutocratic gripe on

 Power and Influence, could begin to recognize Humanity's need - now available to us collectively after our 200.000 year long

 evolutionary sojourn on Earth - the basic assumption and modeling for what might be termed "An Operating Manual for Spaceship

 Earth." A couple of Links (there are hundreds of thousands found with an internet search - another good sign of hope) to the idea are

 immediately below:

http://www.futurehi.net/docs/OperatingManual.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_Manual_for_Spaceship_Earth .............

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If there is any doubt concerning the Plutocratic Concentration of Wealth & income) in the World and the United States of America you might want to contemplate the graph below:

This is a blog about human rights – including political and economic human rights such as the right to participate in government (democracy being a subset of human rights) and the right not to suffer poverty – seen from the perspective of politics, art, philosophy (hence p.a.p.), law, economics and statistic

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                                                        OR Maybe

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                       Author: Among Many other Works & Books:

                                                      

                                          

                                           Critical Path

"We must do away with the absolutely specious notion that everybody has to earn a living.

 It is a fact today that one in ten thousand of us can make a technological breakthrough

capable of supporting all the rest. The youth of today are absolutely right in recognizing

this nonsense of earning a living. We keep inventing jobs because of this false idea that

 everybody has to be employed at some kind of drudgery because, according to

 Malthusian-Darwinian theory, he must justify his right to exist. So we have inspectors of

 inspectors and people making instruments for inspectors to inspect inspectors. The true

business of people should be to go back to school and think about whatever it was they

 were thinking about before somebody came along and told them they had to earn a

 living." R. Buckminster Fuller

                                               &

                                  

              

 "GRUNCH OF GIANTS, GROSS UNIVERSE CASH HEIST"

There is no dictionary word for an army of invisible giants, one thousand miles tall, with

 their arms interlinked, girding the planet Earth. Since there exists just such an invisible,

 abstract, legal-contrivance army of giants, we have invented the word GRUNCH as the

 group designation—"a grunch of giants." GR-UN- C-H, which stands for annual GROSS

 UNIVERSE CASH HEIST, pays annual dividends of over one trillion U.S. dollars.

As world society divests itself of that which experimental evidence demonstrates to be

 untrue and embracingly enters into its computer the mathematical formulae of all that can

 be experimentally proven to be true, all the socially, selfishly malignant characteristics of

 the giant may vanish and the omni-pro- social-advantage-producing capabilities may

prevail and flourish.  -- R.Buckminster Fuller, Grunch of Giants, 1983

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                                             Some quotable quotes from  - R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER

“The most astonishing thing about Spaceship Earth: it didn't come with an operating manual."

"What usually happens in the educational process is that the faculties are dulled, overloaded,

stuffed and paralyzed so that by the time most people are mature they have lost their innate

 capabilities."

 

"Now, if you were world master, you would not be at all worried about being displaced by a dull

 one. You would only be apprehensive of and on guard against the bright ones. There is the old

 strategy of "divide and conquer." Anticipatory "divide and conquer" is more powerful than tardy

 "divide and conquer." The old masters, then, in order to prevent themselves from being displaced

 from their great ocean mastery deliberately went to work taking the young, bright ones as they

 came along, and divided them up anticipatorily into non-self-integratable specializations, which

 made them completely innocuous as challengers to comprehensive grand-strategy thinking and

 practical-affairs integration. The bright ones thus became subject to integration of their high

 potential only at the masters' command......"

Education Automation

 (R. Buckminster Fuller)

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"You must choose between making money and making sense. The two are mutually exclusive."


 
                                                                                   (Buckminster Fuller - 1983)

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“For the first time in history it is now possible to take care of everybody at a higher standard of

 living than any have ever known. Only ten years ago (1970) the ‘more with less’ technology

 reached the point where this could be done.  All humanity now has the option to become enduringly

 successful.”

                                                                                – R. Buckminster Fuller, 1980

 

"To make the world work for 100% of humanity in the shortest possible time through spontaneous

 cooperation without ecological offense or the disadvantage of anyone."

                                                                   R. Buckminster Fuller - "Vision Statement"

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BUCKMINSTER FULLER GRAPH FROM HIS "WORLD GAME" FINDINGS OF THE PERCENTAGE OF THE WORLD POPULATION WHO

 COULD BE SEEN TO BE “HAVES” IN THE MODERN EXPERIENCE IN TERMS OF OUR ABSTRACT TECHNOLOGICALLY AUGMENTED

 “CAPABILITY” TO PROVIDE “LIFE SUPPORT."     FURTHERMORE BOTH “GROWTH AND EQUITY” COULD BE REALIZED WITHIN AN

 ECOLOGICALLY APPROPRIATE MANNER THROUGH THE INCREASING ELEGANCE OF “GOOD DESIGN TEMPLATES – “DOING MORE

 WITH LESS”.  THINK MOORE’S LAW WRIT LARGE.  HE PROJECTED FROM THE YEAR 1952 “A TWENTY YEAR PERIOD OF IMMINENT

 CRISIS TO ALL HUMAN INSTITUTIONS AS WE APPROACHED AND CROSSED THE 50% MARK."  HE LIVED OUT HIS LIFE IN THE

BELIEF THE PROCESS HAD ACCELERATED AND THAT WE CROSSED THE 50% MARK IN 1970. THAT IS THE SAME YEAR MOST

 RELIABLE MODELING'S SUGGEST HUMANITY'S  WEAPONS SYSTEMS BECAME  - AS THEY REMAIN - "SPECIES LETHAL". BOTH

 SIGNAL A NEW MOMENT OF EXISTENTIAL CHALLENGE AND CALL FOR A COMPREHENSIVELY CONCEIVED AND INTELLECTUALLY

 AND ACTIVELY ADVANCED  PARADIGM OF PARADIGM SHIFTS. IF WE HAVE ACTUALLY BEEN EXISTING  WITHIN A POST

 SCARCITY ONTOLOGICAL CONTEXT FOR 40 YEARS "WANDERING IN THE WILDNESS" AS IT WERE - THAT SHOULD BE MADE

KNOWN TO ONE AND ALL INCLUDING OUR POLITICAL AND INTELLECTUAL LEADERSHIP ELEMENTS. OUT OF THE 200,000 YEAR

 TENURE OF OUR HOMO SAPIEN SPECIES ON EARTH  IT MAY WELL BE WE HAVE HAD TO (AND CONTINUE TO ACCEPT AS A

 PRIORI )THE IDEA THAT MATERIAL REALITY IS "SCARCE". CERTAINLY THE VERY PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF POLITICAL AND

 ECONOMIC THEORIZING THAT HAVE INFORMED AND CHARACTERIZED VIRTUALLY ALL OF OUR INHERITED ASSUMPTIONS AND

 INSTITUTIONS HAVE BEEN PREDICATED ON THE ALL BUT UNQUESTIONED ASSUMPTION OF ZERO SUM SCARCITY. FOR ONE TO

 WIN ANOTHER MUST LOSE. IT WOULD SEEM THAT BASIC ASSUMPTION OUGHT AND MUST BE CHALLENGED IF WE ARE TO

 SURVIVE AND NECESSARILY ONE AND ALL BE LIBERATED FROM THE SLINGS AND ARROWS OF AN (ONLY IN OUR LIFETIME BUT

 NOW) NECESSARILY OUTDATED - EVEN AS  ALMOST UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED -  ASSUMPTION.  ALL THIS WITHIN AN

APPROPRIATE ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT IF WE ARE TO AVOID THE SIREN CALLS OF RETROGRADE AND RISK THE ANNIHILATION

 OF OUR ENTIRE SPECIES. WHILE OTHERS HAVE ADDRESSED THE ISSUE IT WOULD STRONGLY BE SUGGESTED THAT

  BUCKMINSTER FULLER HAS PROVIDED AN INTELLECTUAL BASIS FOR  ACHIEVING THAT TRANSFORMED ALTERATION IN

 CONSCIOUSNESS MORE AUTHORITATIVELY AND IN PRACTICAL COMPREHENSIVE TERM  THAN ANY OTHER SOURCE  AVAILABLE

 TO USREMEMBER THIS IS “DESIGN CAPABILITY” NOT THE SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONAL ASSUMPTIONS AND

 NOTIONS OF HUMAN NATURE (WHICH WILL HAVE TO BE SUBSUMED) INHERITED FROM HISTORY IF HUMANITY IS TO CREATE A

 "POST MATERIAL SCARCITY" WORLD WHICH THE FUTURE REQUIRES AND COLLECTIVELY NOW POSSESSES THE MEANS

 TO ACHIEVE.   TO BRIDGE THE TWO - TO LIBERATE RATHER THAN ANNIHILATE - IS MANKIND’S MOST PRESSING CHALLENGE.  HE

 PROVIDED THIS MAJOR PREMISE "PATTERN" TO HELP US ENGAGE IN THE BRIDGE BUILDING WORK.

H.H.C

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                       Polymath / Visionary / Architect

                      Inventor / Philosopher / Author

                             Comprehensivist / Poet

 Proponent of a "Post Materialistic Scarcity Economic Ontology"

Following the year 1970 ! Seen By Many as THE Major Premise of

Fullers Many Contributions to Improving the Human Condition

                     Within the Larger Ecological Order.

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  The program can be viewed in its entirety by clicking the you tube link below:

  Buckminster Fuller World Game Synergy Anticapatory  -  (Originally aired: July 1974)

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More about R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER

 

Buckminster Fuller Institute

 

 
 
BFI hosted a series of events around the 2010 Buckminster Fuller Challenge, including the conferring ceremony for the 2010 Winner at the National Press Club and "Architecting the Future" at AU's School of International Service. Read more
 
June 3rd - Ryan Chin and Michael Lin from Sustainable Personal Mobility and Mobility-on-Demand Systems provide some exciting progress the project has had in the year since winning the 2009 Buckminster Fuller Challenge. Read more
 
The Buckminster Fuller Institute is dedicated to accelerating the development and deployment of solutions which radically advance human well being and the health of our planet's ecosystems. Read more
 
A biography of Buckminster Fuller's "thought development," Ideas and Integrities presents an intimate self-portrait of the experiences and discoveries behind his groundbreaking ideas and inventions. Buy now
 
Born in Milton, Massachusetts on July 12, 1895, Buckminster Fuller was a renowned 20th century inventor and visionary, who dedicated his life to making the world work for all of humanity. Read more
 
© Buckminster Fuller Institute, 2010
Design and Development by Cedomir Kovacev and Ann Morris
Images courtesy of the Estate of R. Buckminster Fuller unless otherwise noted
 

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Buckminster Fuller

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
Buckminster Fuller
Buckminster Fuller
Richard Buckminster Fuller, c. 1917.
Born July 12, 1895
Milton, Massachusetts, United States
Died July 1, 1983 (aged 87)
Los Angeles, United States
Occupation designer, architect, author, inventor
Spouse Anne Fuller
Children 2: Allegra Fuller Snyder and Alexandra who died in childhood

Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American engineer, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor, futurist and second president of Mensa International, the high IQ society.[2][unreliable source?]

Fuller published more than 30 books, inventing and popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", ephemeralization, and synergetics. He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, the best known of which is the geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were later named by scientists for their resemblance to geodesic spheres.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Biography

Fuller was born on July 12, 1895, in Milton, Massachusetts, the son of Richard Buckminster Fuller and Caroline Wolcott Andrews, and also the grandnephew of the American Transcendentalist Margaret Fuller. He attended Froebelian Kindergarten. Spending much of his youth on Bear Island, in Penobscot Bay off the coast of Maine, he had trouble with geometry, being unable to understand the abstraction necessary to imagine that a chalk dot on the blackboard represented a mathematical point, or that an imperfectly drawn line with an arrow on the end was meant to stretch off to infinity. He often made items from materials he brought home from the woods, and sometimes made his own tools. He experimented with designing a new apparatus for human propulsion of small boats.

Years later, he decided that this sort of experience had provided him with not only an interest in design, but also a habit of being familiar with and knowledgeable about the materials that his later projects would require. Fuller earned a machinist's certification, and knew how to use the press brake, stretch press, and other tools and equipment used in the sheet metal trade.[3]

[edit] Academia

Fuller attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts, and after that began studying at Harvard. He was expelled from Harvard twice: first for spending all his money partying with a vaudeville troupe, and then, after having been readmitted, for his "irresponsibility and lack of interest." By his own appraisal, he was a non-conforming misfit in the fraternity environment.[3] It was to be many years before he received a Sc.D. from Bates College in Lewiston, Maine.

[edit] Wartime experience

Between his sessions at Harvard, Fuller worked in Canada as a mechanic in a textile mill, and later as a laborer for the meat-packing industry. He also served in the U.S. Navy in World War I, as a shipboard radio operator, as an editor of a publication, and as a crash-boat commander. After discharge, he worked again for the meat packing industry, thereby acquiring management experience. In 1917, he married Anne Hewlett. During the early 1920s, he and his father-in-law developed the Stockade Building System for producing light-weight, weatherproof, and fireproof housing — although the company would ultimately fail.[3]

[edit] Bankruptcy and depression

By age 32, Fuller was bankrupt and jobless, living in public, low-income housing in Chicago, Illinois. In 1922,[4] Fuller's young daughter Alexandra died from complications from polio and spinal meningitis. Allegedly, he felt responsible and this caused him to drink frequently and to contemplate suicide for a while. He finally chose to embark on "an experiment, to find what a single individual [could] contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity."[5]

[edit] Recovery

In 1927 Fuller resolved to think independently which included a commitment to "the search for the principles governing the universe and help advance the evolution of humanity in accordance with them... finding ways of doing more with less to the end that all people everywhere can have more and more." By 1928, Fuller was living in Greenwich Village and spending much of his time at the popular café Romany Marie's,[6] where he had spent an evening in conversation with Marie and Eugene O'Neill several years earlier.[7] Fuller accepted a job decorating the interior of the café in exchange for meals,[6] giving informal lectures several times a week,[7][8] and models of the Dymaxion house were exhibited at the café. Isamu Noguchi arrived during 1929 — Constantin Brâncuşi, an old friend of Marie's,[9] had directed him there[6] — and Noguchi and Fuller were soon collaborating on several projects,[8][10] including the modeling of the Dymaxion car.[11] It was the beginning of their lifelong friendship.

[edit] Geodesic domes

Fuller taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina during the summers of 1948 and 1949,[12] serving as its Summer Institute director in 1949. There, with the support of a group of professors and students, he began reinventing a project that would make him famous: the geodesic dome. Although the geodesic dome had been created some 30 years earlier by Dr. Walther Bauersfeld, Fuller was awarded United States patents. He is credited for popularizing this type of structure.

One of his early models was first constructed in 1945 at Bennington College in Vermont, where he frequently lectured. During 1949, he erected his first geodesic dome building that could sustain its own weight with no practical limits. It was 4.3 meters (14 ft) in diameter and constructed of aluminum aircraft tubing and a vinyl-plastic skin, in the form of an icosahedron. To prove his design, and to awe non-believers, Fuller suspended from the structure's framework several students who had helped him build it. The U.S. government recognized the importance of his work, and employed his firm Geodesics, Inc. in Raleigh, North Carolina to make small domes for the army. Within a few years there were thousands of these domes around the world.

[edit] Best-known work

For the next half-century, Fuller developed many ideas, designs and inventions, particularly regarding practical, inexpensive shelter and transportation. He documented his life, philosophy and ideas scrupulously by a daily diary (later called the Dymaxion Chronofile), and by twenty-eight publications. Fuller financed some of his experiments with inherited funds, sometimes augmented by funds invested by his collaborators, one example being the Dymaxion car project.

[edit] World stage

The Montreal Biosphère by Buckminster Fuller, 1967

International recognition began with the success of his huge geodesic domes during the 1950s. Fuller taught at Washington University in St. Louis in 1955, where he met James Fitzgibbon, who would become a close friend and colleague. From 1959 to 1970, Fuller taught at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Beginning as an assistant professor, he gained full professorship during 1968, in the School of Art and Design. Working as a designer, scientist, developer, and writer, he lectured for many years around the world. He collaborated at SIU with the designer John McHale. During 1965, Fuller inaugurated the World Design Science Decade (1965 to 1975) at the meeting of the International Union of Architects in Paris, which was, in his own words, devoted to "applying the principles of science to solving the problems of humanity."

Fuller believed human societies would soon rely mainly on renewable sources of energy, such as solar- and wind-derived electricity. He hoped for an age of "omni-successful education and sustenance of all humanity." For his lifetime of work, the American Humanist Association named him the 1969 Humanist of the Year.

[edit] Honors

Fuller was awarded 28 United States patents[13] and many honorary doctorates. In 1960, he was awarded the Frank P. Brown Medal from The Franklin Institute. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1968.[14] On January 16, 1970, he received the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects. He also received numerous other awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom presented to him on February 23, 1983 by President Ronald Reagan.

[edit] Last filmed appearance

Fuller's last filmed interview took place on April 3, 1983, in which he presented his analysis of Simon Rodia's Watts Towers as a unique embodiment of the structural principles found in nature. Portions of this interview appear in I Build the Tower, a documentary film on Rodia's architectural masterpiece.

 
Buckminster Fuller, lecture tour 1972-3, University of California at Santa Barbara.

[edit] Death

Gravestone (see trim tab)

Fuller died on July 1, 1983, 11 days before his 88th birthday. During the period leading up to his death, his wife had been lying comatose in a Los Angeles hospital, dying of cancer. It was while visiting her there that he exclaimed, at a certain point: "She is squeezing my hand!" He then stood up, suffered a heart attack, and died an hour later, at age 87. His wife of 66 years died 36 hours later. They are buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

[edit] Philosophy and worldview

The grandson of a Unitarian minister (Arthur Buckminster Fuller),[15] R. Buckminster Fuller was also Unitarian.[16] Buckminster Fuller was an early environmental activist. He was very aware of the finite resources the planet has to offer, and promoted a principle that he termed "ephemeralization", which, in essence — according to futurist and Fuller disciple Stewart Brand — Fuller coined to mean "doing more with less".[17] Resources and waste material from cruder products could be recycled into making more valuable products, increasing the efficiency of the entire process. Fuller also introduced synergetics, an encompassing term which he used broadly as a metaphoric language for communicating experiences using geometric concepts and, more specifically, to reference the empirical study of systems in transformation, with an emphasis on total system behavior unpredicted by the behavior of any isolated components. Fuller coined this term long before the term synergy became popular.

Fuller was a pioneer in thinking globally, and he explored principles of energy and material efficiency in the fields of architecture, engineering and design.[18][19] He cited François de Chardenedes' opinion that petroleum, from the standpoint of its replacement cost out of our current energy "budget" (essentially, the net incoming solar flux), had cost nature "over a million dollars" per U.S. gallon (US$300,000 per litre) to produce. From this point of view, its use as a transportation fuel by people commuting to work represents a huge net loss compared to their earnings.[20] An encapsulation quotation of his views might be, "There is no energy crisis, only a crisis of ignorance."[21][22][23]

Fuller was concerned about sustainability and about human survival under the existing socio-economic system, yet remained optimistic about humanity's future. Defining wealth in terms of knowledge, as the "technological ability to protect, nurture, support, and accommodate all growth needs of life," his analysis of the condition of "Spaceship Earth" caused him to conclude that at a certain time during the 1970s, humanity had attained an unprecedented state. He was convinced that the accumulation of relevant knowledge, combined with the quantities of major recyclable resources that had already been extracted from the earth, had attained a critical level, such that competition for necessities was not necessary anymore. Cooperation had become the optimum survival strategy. "Selfishness," he declared, "is unnecessary and hence-forth unrationalizable.... War is obsolete."[24] He criticized previous utopian schemes as too exclusive, and thought this was a major source of their failure. To work, he thought that a utopia needed to include everyone.[25]

Fuller also claimed that the natural analytic geometry of the universe was based on arrays of tetrahedra. He developed this in several ways, from the close-packing of spheres and the number of compressive or tensile members required to stabilize an object in space. One confirming result was that the strongest possible homogeneous truss is cyclically tetrahedral.[26]

In his 1970 book I Seem To Be a Verb, he wrote: "I live on Earth at present, and I don't know what I am. I know that I am not a category. I am not a thing — a noun. I seem to be a verb, an evolutionary process — an integral function of the universe."

He had become a guru of the design, architecture, and 'alternative' communities, such as Drop City, the community of experimental artists to whom he awarded the 1966 "Dymaxion Award" for "poetically economic" domed living structures.

[edit] Major design projects

Géode V 3 1.gif Géode V 3 1 duale.gif
A geodesic sphere and its dual.

[edit] The geodesic dome

Fuller was most famous for his lattice shell structures - geodesic domes, which have been used as parts of military radar stations, civic buildings, environmental protest camps and exhibition attractions. An examination of the geodesic design by Bauersfeld for the Zeiss Planetarium, built some 20 years prior to Fuller's work, reveals that Fuller's Geodesic Dome patent (U.S. 2,682,235) follows the same methodology as Bauersfeld's design.[27]

Their construction is based on extending some basic principles to build simple "tensegrity" structures (tetrahedron, octahedron, and the closest packing of spheres), making them lightweight and stable. The patent for geodesic domes was awarded during 1954, part of Fuller's exploration of nature's constructing principles to find design solutions. The Fuller Dome is referenced in the Hugo Award-winning novel Stand on Zanzibar by John Brunner, in which a geodesic dome is said to cover the entire island of Manhattan, and it floats on air due to the hot-air balloon effect of the large air-mass under the dome (and perhaps its construction of lightweight materials).[28]

[edit] Transportation

In the 1930s, Fuller designed and built prototypes of what he hoped would be a safer, aerodynamic car, which he called the Dymaxion. ("Dymaxion" is said to be a syllabic abbreviation of dynamic maximum tension, or possibly of dynamic maximum ion.)[29] Fuller worked with professional colleagues for three years beginning in 1932 on a design idea Fuller had derived from aircraft technologies. The three prototype cars were different from anything being sold at the time. They had three wheels: two front drive wheels and one rear, steered wheel. The engine was in the rear, and the chassis and body were original designs. The aerodynamic, somewhat tear-shaped body was large enough to seat eleven people and was about 18 feet (5.5 m) long, resembling a blend of a light aircraft (without wings) and a Volkswagen van of 1950s vintage. All three prototypes were essentially a mini-bus, and its concept long predated the Volkswagen Type 2 mini-bus conceived in 1947 by Ben Pon.

Despite its length, and due to its three-wheel design, the Dymaxion turned on a small radius and could easily be parked in a tight space. The prototypes were efficient in fuel consumption for their day, traveling about 30 miles per gallon. Fuller contributed a great deal of his own money to the project, in addition to funds from one of his professional collaborators. An industrial investor was also very interested in the concept. Fuller anticipated the cars could travel on an open highway safely at up to about 160 km/h (100 miles per hour), but, in practise, they were difficult to control and steer above 80 km/h (50 mph). Investors backed out and research ended after one of the prototypes was involved in a high-profile collision that resulted in a fatality. In 2007, Time Magazine reported on the Dymaxion as one of the "50 worst cars of all time".[30]

In 1943, industrialist Henry J. Kaiser asked Fuller to develop a prototype for a smaller car, but Fuller's five-seater design was never developed further.

[edit] Housing

A Dymaxion House at The Henry Ford.

Fuller's energy-efficient and inexpensive Dymaxion House garnered much interest, but has never been produced. Here the term "Dymaxion" is used in effect to signify a "radically strong and light tensegrity structure". One of Fuller's Dymaxion Houses is on display as a permanent exhibit at The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan. Designed and developed during the mid-1940s, this prototype is a round structure (not a dome), shaped something like the flattened "bell" of certain jellyfish. It has several innovative features, including revolving dresser drawers, and a fine-mist shower that reduces water consumption. According to Fuller biographer Steve Crooks, the house was designed to be delivered in two cylindrical packages, with interior color panels available at local dealers. A circular structure at the top of the house was designed to rotate around a central mast to use natural winds for cooling and air circulation.

Conceived nearly two decades before, and developed in Wichita, Kansas, the house was designed to be lightweight and adapted to windy climates. It was to be inexpensive to produce and purchase, and assembled easily. It was to be produced using factories, workers and technologies that had produced World War II aircraft. It was ultramodern-looking at the time, built of metal, and sheathed in polished aluminum. The basic model enclosed 90 m² (1000 square feet) of floor area. Due to publicity, there were many orders during the early Post-War years, but the company that Fuller and others had formed to produce the houses failed due to management problems.

During 1969, Fuller began the Otisco Project, named after its location in Otisco, New York. The project developed and demonstrated concrete spray technology used in conjunction with mesh covered wireforms as a viable means of producing large scale, load bearing spanning structures built on site without the use of pouring molds, other adjacent surfaces or hoisting.

The initial construction method used a circular concrete footing in which anchor posts were set. Tubes cut to length and with ends flattened were then bolted together to form a duodeca-rhombicahedron (22 sided hemisphere) geodesic structure with spans ranging to 60 feet (18 m). The form was then draped with layers of ¼-inch wire mesh attached by twist ties. Concrete was then sprayed onto the structure, building up a solid layer which, when cured, would support additional concrete to be added by a variety of traditional means. Fuller referred to these buildings as monolithic ferroconcrete geodesic domes. The tubular frame form proved too problematic when it came to setting windows and doors, and was abandoned. The second method used iron rebar set vertically in the concrete footing and then bent inward and welded in place to create the dome's wireform structure and performed satisfactorily. Domes up to three stories tall built with this method proved to be remarkably strong. Other shapes such as cones, pyramids and arches proved equally adaptable.

The project was enabled by a grant underwritten by Syracuse University and sponsored by US Steel (rebar), the Johnson Wire Corp, (mesh) and Portland Cement Company (concrete). The ability to build large complex load bearing concrete spanning structures in free space would open many possibilities in architecture, and is considered as one of Fuller's greatest contributions.

[edit] Alternative map projection

Fuller also designed an alternative projection map, called the Dymaxion map. This was designed to show Earth's continents with minimum distortion when projected or printed on a flat surface.

[edit] Quirks

Fuller was a frequent flier, often crossing time zones. He famously wore three watches; one for the current zone, one for the zone he had departed, and one for the zone he was going to.[31][32] In this respect he follows the jazz drummer Buddy Rich, who in the Pete Atkin / Clive James song “The Wristwatch for a Drummer”, also “wears three, one on the right wrist, one on the left, and the third one around his knee”. The wristwatch in question is the imagined “Omega Incabloc Oyster Accutron 72” for which “Buckminster Fuller designed the case”[33] Fuller also noted that a single sheet of newsprint, inserted over a shirt and under a suit jacket, provided completely effective heat insulation during long flights.

He experimented with polyphasic sleep, which he called Dymaxion sleep. In 1943, he told Time Magazine that he had slept only two hours a day for two years. He quit the schedule because it conflicted with his business associates' sleep habits, but stated that Dymaxion sleep could help the United States win World War II.[34]

Fuller documented his life copiously from 1915 to 1983, approximately 270 feet (82 m) of papers in a collection called the Dymaxion Chronofile. He also kept copies of all ingoing and outgoing correspondence. The enormous Fuller Collection is currently housed at Stanford University.

If somebody kept a very accurate record of a human being, going through the era from the Gay 90s, from a very different kind of world through the turn of the century — as far into the twentieth century as you might live. I decided to make myself a good case history of such a human being and it meant that I could not be judge of what was valid to put in or not. I must put everything in, so I started a very rigorous record.[35][36]

[edit] Practical achievements

Fuller introduced a number of concepts, and helped develop others. Certainly, a number of his projects were not successful in terms of commitment from industry or acceptance by most of the public. However, more than 500,000 geodesic domes have been built around the world and many are in use. According to the Buckminster Fuller Institute,[37] the largest geodesic-dome structures are:

Panoramic view of the geodesic domes at the Eden Project

Other notable domes include:

  • Spaceship Earth at Disney World's Epcot Center in Florida, 80.8-meters (265 ft) wide (Spaceship Earth is actually a self supporting geodesic sphere, the only one currently in existence.)
  • The Gold Dome in Oklahoma City, formerly a bank and now a multicultural society and business center.
  • Downtown Vancouver, British Columbia, is a geodesic sphere hosting the Telus World of Science, a science centre (formerly called Science World), that was originally the Expo Centre built for Expo 86.
  • The dome over a shopping center in downtown Ankara, Turkey, 109.7-meter (360 ft) tall
  • The dome enclosing a civic center in Stockholm, Sweden, 85.3-meter (280 ft) high.
  • The world's largest aluminum dome formerly housed the “Spruce Goose” airplane in Long Beach Harbor, California, USA.

However, contrary to Fuller's hopes, domes are not an everyday sight in most places. In practice, most of the smaller owner-built geodesic structures had disadvantages (see geodesic domes), including their unconventional appearance.

An interesting spin-off of Fuller's dome-design conceptualization was the Buckminster Ball, which was the official FIFA approved design for footballs (association football), from their introduction at the 1970 World Cup until recently. The design was a truncated icosahedron -- essentially a "Geodesic Sphere", consisting of 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal panels. This was used continuously for 34 years until replaced by the 14-panel Teamgeist for the 2006 World Cup.

Fuller was followed (historically) by other designers and architects, such as Sir Norman Foster and Steve Baer, willing to explore the possibilities of new geometries in the design of buildings, not based on conventional rectangles.

[edit] Language and neologisms

Buckminster Fuller spoke and wrote in a unique style and said it was important to describe the world as accurately as possible.[43] Fuller often created long run-on sentences and used unusual compound words (omniwell-informed, intertransformative, omni-interaccommodative, omniself-regenerative) as well as terms he himself invented.[44]

Fuller used the word Universe without the definite or indefinite articles (the or a) and always capitalized the word. Fuller wrote that "by Universe I mean: the aggregate of all humanity's consciously apprehended and communicated (to self or others) Experiences."[45]

The words "down" and "up", according to Fuller, are awkward in that they refer to a planar concept of direction inconsistent with human experience. The words "in" and "out" should be used instead, he argued, because they better describe an object's relation to a gravitational center, the Earth. "I suggest to audiences that they say, 'I'm going "outstairs" and "instairs."' At first that sounds strange to them; They all laugh about it. But if they try saying in and out for a few days in fun, they find themselves beginning to realize that they are indeed going inward and outward in respect to the center of Earth, which is our Spaceship Earth. And for the first time they begin to feel real 'reality.'"[46]

"World-around" is a term coined by Fuller to replace "worldwide". The general belief in a flat Earth died out in Classical antiquity, so using "wide" is an anachronism when referring to the surface of the Earth—a spheroidal surface has area and encloses a volume but has no width. Fuller held that unthinking use of obsolete scientific ideas detracts from and misleads intuition. Other neologisms collectively invented by the Fuller family, according to Allegra Fuller Snyder, are the terms "sunsight" and "sunclipse", replacing "sunrise" and "sunset" to overturn the geocentric bias of most pre-Copernican celestial mechanics.

Fuller also invented the word "livingry," as opposed to weaponry (or "killingry"), to mean that which is in support of all human, plant, and Earth life. "The architectural profession — civil, naval, aeronautical, and astronautical — has always been the place where the most competent thinking is conducted regarding livingry, as opposed to weaponry."[47]

As well as contributing significantly to the development of tensegrity technology, Fuller invented the term "tensegrity" from tensional integrity. "Tensegrity describes a structural-relationship principle in which structural shape is guaranteed by the finitely closed, comprehensively continuous, tensional behaviors of the system and not by the discontinuous and exclusively local compressional member behaviors. Tensegrity provides the ability to yield increasingly without ultimately breaking or coming asunder."[48]

"Dymaxion" is a portmanteau of "dynamic maximum tension". It was invented by an adman about 1929 at Marshall Field's department store in Chicago to describe Fuller's concept house, which was shown as part of a house of the future store display. These were three words that Fuller used repeatedly to describe his design.

Fuller also helped to popularise the concept of Spaceship Earth: "The most important fact about Spaceship Earth: an instruction manual didn't come with it."[49]

[edit] Concepts and buildings

His concepts and buildings include:

[edit] Influence and legacy

Among the many people who were influenced by Buckminster Fuller are: Constance Abernathy,[52] Ruth Asawa,[53] J. Baldwin,[54][55] Michael Ben-Eli,[56] Pierre Cabrol,[57] Joseph Clinton,[58] Peter Floyd,[56] Medard Gabel,[59] Michael Hays,[56] David Johnston,[60] Robert Kiyosaki,[61] Peter Pearce,[56] Shoji Sadao,[56] Edwin Schlossberg,[56] Kenneth Snelson,[53][62][63] and Robert Anton Wilson.[64]

An allotrope of carbon - fullerene, and a particular molecule of that allotrope C60 (buckminsterfullerene or buckyball) has been named after him. The Buckminsterfullerene molecule, which consists of 60 carbon atoms, very closely resembles a spherical version of Fuller's geodesic dome. The 1996 Nobel prize in chemistry was given to Kroto, Curl, and Smalley for their discovery of the fullerene.[65]

On July 12, 2004, the United States Post Office released a new commemorative stamp honoring R. Buckminster Fuller on the 50th anniversary of his patent for the geodesic dome and by the occasion of his 109th birthday.

Fuller was the subject of two documentary films: The World of Buckminster Fuller (1971) and Buckminster Fuller: Thinking Out Loud (1996).

During June 2008, the Whitney Museum of American Art presented "Buckminster Fuller: Starting with the Universe", the most comprehensive retrospective to date of his work and ideas.[66] The exhibition traveled to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago in 2009. It presented a combination of models, sketches, and other artifacts, representing six decades of the artist's integrated approach to housing, transportation, communication, and cartography. It also featured the extensive connections with Chicago from his years spent living, teaching, and working in the city.[67]

On February 25, 2011, Chicago-based indie band Driftless Pony Club released their album "Buckminster," whose songs used the names of some of Fuller's essays and were dedicated to his life and ideas.[68]

[edit] Bibliography

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. (2007). "Fuller, R Buckminster". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9365050. Retrieved April 20, 2007.
  2. ^ Serebriakoff, Victor. "The Odd Way Mensa Began". Western Pennsylvania Mensa. http://wheel.dcn.davis.ca.us/~sander/mensa/serebr1.html. Retrieved 2007-11-07
  3. ^ a b c Pawley, Martin (1991). Buckminster Fuller. New York: Taplinger. ISBN 0-8008-1116-X.
  4. ^ R. Buckminster Fuller, Your Private Sky, Page 27
  5. ^ Design – A Three-Wheel Dream That Died at Takeoff – Buckminster Fuller and the Dymaxion Car – NYTimes.com
  6. ^ a b c John Haber. "Before Buckyballs". Review of Noguchi Museum Best of Friends exhibit (May 19, 2006 – October 15, 2006). http://www.haberarts.com/fuller.htm. "Noguchi, then twenty-five, had already had enough influences for a lifetime — from birth in Los Angeles, to childhood in Japan and the Midwest, to premedical classes at Columbia, to academic sculpture on the Lower East Side, to Brancusi's circle in Paris. Now his exposure to Modernism and "the American century" received a decidedly New York influence.
    "Only two years before, on the brink of suicide, Fuller had decided to remake his life and the world. Why not begin on Minetta Street? In 1929, he was shopping around his first major design, plans for an inexpensive, modular home that others air-lift right where desired. Now, in exchange for meals, he took on the interior decoration and chairs for Marie's new location. He must have stood out in person, too, ever the talkative, handsome visionary in tie and starched collar."
    See also: "The Architect and the Sculptor: A Friendship of Ideas". Grace Glueck, The New York Times. May 19, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/19/arts/design/19nogu.html. Retrieved April 27, 2010."
  7. ^ a b Lloyd Steven Sieden. Buckminster Fuller's Universe: His Life and Work (pp. 74, 119-142). New York: Perseus Books Group, 2000. ISBN 0-73820-379-3. p. 74: "Although O'Neill soon became well known as a major American playwright, it was Romany Marie who would significantly influence Bucky, becoming his close friend and confidante during the most difficult years of his life."
  8. ^ a b John Haskell. "Buckminster Fuller and Isamu Noguchi". Kraine Gallery Bar Lit, Fall 2007. http://www.kgbbar.com/lit/features/buckminster_ful.html.
  9. ^ Robert Schulman. Romany Marie: The Queen of Greenwich Village (pp. 85–86, 109–110). Louisville: Butler Books, 2006. ISBN 1-88453-274-8.
  10. ^ "Interview with Isamu Noguchi". Conducted November 7, 1973 by Paul Cummings at Noguchi's studio in Long Island City, Queens. Smithsonian Archives of American Art. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/tranSCRIPTs/noguch73.htm.
  11. ^ Michael John Gorman (updated March 12, 2002). "Passenger Files: Isamu Noguchi, 1904–1988". Towards a cultural history of Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion Car. Stanford Humanities Lab. http://hotgates.stanford.edu/Bucky/dymaxion/noguchi.htm. Includes several images.
  12. ^ "IDEAS + INVENTIONS: Buckminster Fuller and Black Mountain College". Black Mountain College Museum and Arts Center Exhibit. July 15, 2005 – November 26, 2005. http://blackmountaincollege.org/content/view/45/60/.
  13. ^ Partial list of Fuller U.S. patents
  14. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter F". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. http://www.amacad.org/publications/BookofMembers/ChapterF.pdf. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  15. ^ Arthur Buckminster Fuller
  16. ^ Buckminster Fuller: Designer of a New World
  17. ^ Brand, Stewart (1999). The Clock of the Long Now. New York: Basic. ISBN 046504512X.
  18. ^ Fuller, R. Buckminster (1969). Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 080932461X.
  19. ^ Fuller, R. Buckminster; Applewhite, E. J. (1975). Synergetics. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 002541870X.
  20. ^ Fuller, R. Buckminster (1981). Critical Path. New York: St. Martin's Press. xxxiv-xxxv. ISBN 0312174888.
  21. ^ http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/fuller.htm
  22. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYtQ_-rpAUo&feature=related
  23. ^ The Economist. http://www.economist.com/debate/days/view/159.
  24. ^ Fuller, R. Buckminster (1981). "Introduction". Critical Path (First ed.). New York, N.Y.: St.Martin's Press. xxv. ISBN 0-312-17488-8. ""It no longer has to be you or me. Selfishness is unnecessary and hence-forth unrationalizable as mandated by survival. War is obsolete."
  25. ^ Fuller, R. Buckminster (2008). Jaime Snyder. ed. Utopia or oblivion: the prospects for humanity. Baden, Switzerland: Lars Müller Publishers. ISBN 9783037781272.
  26. ^ Edmondson, Amy, "A Fuller Explanation", Birkhauser, Boston, 1987, p19 tetrahedra, p110 octet truss
  27. ^ Geodesic Domes and Charts of the Heavens
  28. ^ The R. Buckminster Fuller FAQ: Geodesic Domes
  29. ^ National Automobile Museum
  30. ^ "The 50 Worst Cars of All Time"
  31. ^ Annals of Innovation: Dymaxion Man: Reporting & Essays: The New Yorker
  32. ^ Fuller, Buckminster (1969). Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 080932461X.
  33. ^ [The Wristwatch For A Drummer: http://www.peteatkin.com/c4.htm]
  34. ^ "Science: Dymaxion Sleep". Time. October 11, 1943. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,774680,00.html. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  35. ^ Buckminster Fuller conversations
  36. ^ http://www-sul.stanford.edu//depts/spc/fuller/about.html
  37. ^ http://www.bfi.org/
  38. ^ http://www.poliedrodecaracas.gob.ve/index.php
  39. ^ Poliedro de Caracas - Sightseeing with Google Satellite Maps
  40. ^ http://cityguides.salsaweb.com/belgium/reports/2001/20010120venezuelatravel/venezimages/caracas04.jpg
  41. ^ 2theadvocate.com News | Kansas City Southern razes geodesic dome — Baton Rouge, LA
  42. ^ - The Eden Project
  43. ^ "What is important in this connection is the way in which humans reflex spontaneously for that is the way in which they usually behave in critical moments, and it is often "common sense" to reflex in perversely ignorant ways that produce social disasters by denying knowledge and ignorantly yielding to common sense." Intuition, 1972 Doubleday, New York. p.103
  44. ^ He wrote a single unpunctuated sentence approximately 3000 words long titled "What I Am Trying to Do." And It Came to Pass - Not to Stay Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1976.
  45. ^ "How Little I Know" from And It Came to Pass - Not to Stay Macmillan, 1976
  46. ^ Intuition (1972).
  47. ^ Critical Path, page xxv.
  48. ^ Synergetics, page 372.
  49. ^ "Selected Quotes". http://www.cjfearnley.com/cgi-bin/cjf-fortunes.pl?srchstr=Fuller&name=Submit. 090810 cjfearnley.com
  50. ^ Salsbury, Patrick G. (2000) "Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science; An Introduction" Miqel.com
  51. ^ "Eight Strategies for Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science" Buckminster Fuller Institute
  52. ^ thirteen.org website Helped organize Fuller's papers Retrieved December 29, 2010
  53. ^ a b Thomas T. K. Zung, Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for a New Millennium Retrieved December 29, 2010
  54. ^ Buckyworks Retrieved December 29, 2010
  55. ^ Buckworks Retrieved December 29, 2010
  56. ^ a b c d e f Makovsky, Paul; Lanks, Belinda and Pedersen, Martin C. (July 2008) "The Fuller Effect" Metropolis (Magazine, New York) 28(1): pp. 106-111
  57. ^ Noland, Carol (November 1, 2009) "Pierre Cabrol dies at 84; architect was lead designer of Hollywood's Cinerama Dome" Los Angeles Times, archived here at WebCite
  58. ^ Buckminster Fuller Prize challenge Retrieved December 29, 2010
  59. ^ Thomas T. K. Zung, Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for a New Millennium Retrieved December 29, 2010
  60. ^ About David Johnston Retrieved December 29, 2010
  61. ^ Kiyosaki, Robert. Rich Dad's Conspiracy of the Rich: The 8 New Rules of Money, pp. 3-4. Business Plus, 2009. ISBN 978-0-446-55980-5
  62. ^ [1], Whitney Museum of American Art exhibition, Retrieved December 29, 2010
  63. ^ concerning Fuller and Snelson Retrieved December 29, 2010
  64. ^ Hi Times May 1981, Robert Anton Wilson interviews Buckminster Fuller Retrieved December 29, 2010
  65. ^ Chemistry 1996
  66. ^ Buckminster Fuller: Starting with the Universe
  67. ^ "Chicago's MCA to show Buckminster Fuller ~ Starting with the Universe". 2009. http://www.artknowledgenews.com/R_Buckminster_Fuller_Starting_with_the_Universe.html. Retrieved 2011-08-08.
  68. ^ Driftless Pony Club (2011). "Pre-Order Our New Album Now!". Blogger Online. http://www.driftlessponyclub.com/2011/02/pre-order-our-new-album-now.html. Retrieved April 8, 2011.

[edit] Further reading

  • Applewhite, E. J. Cosmic Fishing: An account of writing Synergetics with Buckminster Fuller. 1977 (ISBN 0-02-502710-7)
  • Applewhite, E. J., ed. Synergetics Dictionary, The Mind Of Buckminster Fuller; in four volumes. Garland Publishing, Inc. New York and London. 1986 (ISBN 0-8240-8729-1)
  • Chu, Hsiao-Yun. "Fuller's Laboratory Notebook." Collections, Volume 4 Issue 4 Fall 2008 (Lanham, MD: Altamira Press), 295-306.
  • Chu, Hsiao-Yun and Roberto Trujillo. New Views on R. Buckminster Fuller.(Stanford, CA; Stanford University Press, 2009) ISBN 0804762791
  • Eastham, Scott: American Dreamer. Bucky Fuller and the Sacred Geometry of Nature; The Lutterworth Press 2007, Cambridge; ISBN 9780718830311
  • Edmondson, Amy: "A Fuller Explanation"; EmergentWorld LLC. 2007 (ISBN 978-0-6151-8314-5)
  • Hatch, Alden Buckminster Fuller At Home In The Universe. 1974 (ISBN 0-440-04408-1) Crown Publishers, New York.
  • Hoogenboom, Olive (1999). "Fuller, R. Buckminster". American National Biography. 8. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 559–562.
  • Kenner, Hugh, Bucky: A guided tour of Buckminster Fuller. 1973 (ISBN 0-688-00141-6)
  • Krausse, Joachim and Lichtenstein, Claude. ed. Your Private Sky, R. Buckminster Fuller: The Art Of Design Science. Lars Mueller Publishers. 1999 (ISBN 3-907044-88-6)
  • McHale, John. R. Buckminster Fuller. George Brazillier, Inc., New York. hardback. 1962.
  • Pawley, Martin. Buckminster Fuller. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York. 1991. hardcover (ISBN 0-8008-1116-X)
  • Potter, R. Robert. Buckminster Fuller (Pioneers in Change Series). Silver Burdett Publishers. 1990 (ISBN 0-382-09972-9)
  • Robertson, Donald. Mind's Eye Of Buckminster Fuller. 1974 (ISBN 0-533-01017-9) Vantage Press, Inc., New York.
  • Sieden, Lloyd. Buckminster Fuller's Universe, His Life and Work. 1989 (ISBN 0-7382-0379-3), explores Fuller's personal life, his beliefs and drives.
  • Snyder, Robert. Buckminster Fuller: An Autobiographical Monologue/Scenario. St. Martin's Press, New York. hardback. 1980 (ISBN 0-312-24547-5)
  • Sterngold, James. "The Love Song of R. Buckminster Fuller." The New York Times [Arts Section], June 15, 2008.
  • Ward, James, ed., The Artifacts Of R. Buckminster Fuller, A Comprehensive Collection of His Designs and Drawings in Four Volumes: Volume One. The Dymaxion Experiment, 1926–1943; Volume Two. Dymaxion Deployment, 1927–1946; Volume Three. The Geodesic Revolution, Part 1, 1947–1959; Volume Four. The Geodesic Revolution, Part 2, 1960-1983: Edited with descriptions by James Ward. Garland Publishing, New York. 1984 (ISBN 0-8240-5082-7 vol. 1, ISBN 0-8240-5083-5 vol. 2, ISBN 0-8240-5084-3 vol. 3, ISBN 0-8240-5085-1 vol. 4)
  • Wong, Yunn Chii, The Geodesic Works of Richard Buckminster Fuller, 1948-1968 (The Universe as a Home of Man), PhD thesis, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture, 1999.
  • Wühr, Paul, Das falsche Buch. (Fuller appears as a character in this book.)
  • Zung, T.K. Thomas. Buckminster Fuller: Anthology for a New Millennium. St. Martin's Press. 2001 (ISBN 0-312-26639-1)

[edit] External links

Articles about Fuller
Collections
Everything I Know
Media
Other resources

 

 

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